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Ame rican Woman's

COOK BOOK

Edited and Revised hy Ruth Bcrol^^ncimcf

Director/ Culinary Arts Institute

From the DELINEATOR COOK BOOK

Edited by

Delineator Institute,

Mildred Maddocks Bentley, Director

Martha Van Rensselaer and Flora Rose Directors, College of Home Economics

-Cornell University

Published for

CULINARY ARTS INSTITUTE

by

CONSOLIDATED BOOK PUBLISHERS, INC.

CHICAGO, 1939

Copyright, 1939

by

Consolidated Book Publishers,

Incorporated

Chicago, 111.

Copyrights of previous works in which

certain parts of this book appeared

Copyright,

MCMXXVIII

MCMXXXIV

by

Butterick Publishing Company

Entered at Stationers' Hall, London, England

Copyright,

MCMXXXVIII

by

Consolidated Book Publishers,

Incorporated

Manufactured in the United States of America by The Cuneo Press, Inc.

Table of Contents

PAGE

Useful Facts about Food - 1

How to Buy Food - - 3 5 Food Values and Meal

Planning ----- 39

Menu Making - - - - 47

The School Lunch - - 60

Table Setting and Service 64

Carving ----- 83

Garnishes ----- 88

Cereals ------ 92

Yeast Breads - - - - ^7

Quick Breads - - - - 117

Sandwiches - - - - 131

Toast - - - - - - 156

Appetizers - - - - - 158

Soups ------165

Soup Accessories - - - 186

Fish - 191

Meat - 228

Poultry and Game - - 274 StuflSngs for Fish, Meat,

Poultry and Game - - 303 Sauces for Fish, Meat,

Poultry, Game and

Vegetables - - - - 307 Entrees and Made-Over

Dishes ----- 326

Vegetarian Dishes - - - 351

Egg Dishes ----- 360

Cheese ------ 374

Vegetables ----- 383

Salads ------ 424

PAGB

Salad Dressings - - - 446

Cakes ------ 451

Cake Fillings and Frost -

ings ------ 472

Cookies, Doughnuts, Gin- gerbread, Small Cakes - 483 Candies ------502

Fruit Desserts - - - - 517

Custards, Gelatin and

Cream Desserts - - 525

Hot and Cold Puddings - 539

Frozen Desserts - - - 5 57

Sauces for Desserts - - 579

Pastry and Meringues - 5 85

French Recipes - - - 615

Hot and Cold Beverages 635

Food for Invalids - - - 650

High Altitude Cooking - 657 Canning, Preserving and

Jelly Making - - - 658 Piddes and Relishes - - 687 Casserole and Oven Cook- ery 701

Cooking for Two - - - 710

Cooking at the Table - - 718

Food Equivalents - - - 722 The Friends Who Honor

Us 724

Herbs, Spices, Extracts - 730

Foreign Words and Phrases 734

Wine Seasons Fine Food - 737

Index 759

List of Illustrations

REFER

PAGE ILLUSTRATION to page

APPETIZERS

164B Appetizers - - - - 162 160A Canapes and Appetiz- ers (color) - - 158-162

164A Cocktail Tray - - - 158 164B Individual Sandwich

Loaves ----- 150

BREADS

122A Apple Flapjacks - - 121 125A Assorted Quick Breads

129, 130

lOOB Assorted Rolls - - - 110

lOOA Braided Bread - - - 101 106A Bread and Rolls

(color) - - - 108-11.0

33 2A Bread Croustades - - 32^

lOOB Clover-Leaf Rolb - - 109

125 A Corn Bread - - - - 127

Gingerbread - - - - 494

157B Cornucopia - - - - 157

lOOB Crescent Rolls - - - 109

112A English Muffins - - - 110

100 A Folding the Dough - 101

125 A Gingerbread - - - - 494

Corn Bread - - - - 127

112A Honey Sandwich Loaf - 129

112B Honey Twist - - - 115

lOOA Kneading the Dough - 100

112B Pecan Caramel Rolls - 126

Swedish Tea Ring - - 111

122B Popovers 119

125B Sally Lunn - - - - 126

125B Scones 126

11 2B Swedish Tea Ring - - 111

Pecan Caramel Rolls - 126

157B Toast 156

157A Toasted Loaf - - - 157

122A Waffles ----- 122

CAKES, COOKIES

457B Cakes of Many

Varieties - - 451-471 471 A Chocolate Marshmallow

Roll 470

457A Devil's Food Cake - - 458

PAGE

486A 471B 480A 486A 486A 457A

480B 486B 486B 496A

471A 471B

496B 56C 56C

378B 390B

758

187A

187A

378A

435A

435B

139B

435B

378A

572A 24B 535B 572B 535B 122B 549B 549B 549A 6A 535A 53 5A 566B

ILLUSTRATION

REFER TO PAGE

Frosted Delights - 484

Fruit Cake - - - - 465

How to Frost a Cake - 472

How to Make Cookies 483

Icebox Cookies - - - 485 Martha Washington

Pie 469, 474

Novelty Frostings - 478-482

Petits Fours - - - - 496

Sugar Cookies - - - 484

Torte 496

Upside-Down Cake - 471

White Mountain Cake 461

CANDIES

Assorted Candies -

Pulled Sugar - - -

Spun Sugar - - -

CHEESE

502 516 515

382

Cheese Biscuit - - Cheese Fondue on

Asparagus - - - 623

Cheese Fruit Tray - - 374

Cheese Rolls - - - - 186 Cheese Sticks - - 186, 381

Cheese Tray - - - 374

Frosted Melon - - - 440

Pear-Grape Salad - - 440

Toasted Cheese Loaf - 157

Tomato Rose Salad - 434

Welsh Rarebit - - - 377

DESSERTS Baked Alaska - - - 568 Banana Fritters - - - 493 Bavarian Cream - - 534 Bombes ----- 578 Charlotte Russe - - 536 Coffee Cakes - - - 113 Date Pudding - - - 550 English Plum Pudding 548 Fruit Pudding - - - 549 Fruit Tartlets - - - 604 Garnishing Custards - 554 Hard Sauce - - - - 581 Ice Cream in Canta- loupe 557

IV

LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS

REFER

PAGE ILLUSTRATION to page 566B Ice Cream in Meringue

Cups 499

572B Ice Cream Sandwich - 569

496 A Plum Puddings - - - 548

5 49 A Rennet-Custard - - - 554

496B Shortcake - - - - 547 5 66 A Vanilla Ice Cream with

Strawberries - - - 563

EGGS

363B Fluffy Eggs - - - - 373

Bacon 265

363B Ham and Eggs - - - 264

363A Poached Eggs - - - 360

3 63 A Puffy Omelet - - - 363

ENTREES

332A Bread Croustades - - 329

332D Chicken Mousse- - - 350

3 32 A Creamed Sahnon - - 219 341B Croquettes - - - 335-341 157A Entree Treasure Chest

329, 224

332B Muffin Tin Timbales

327,330

328A Noodle Ring with Creamed Chicken

(color) . - - - 344 332D Noodle Ring with

Vegetables - - - - 344

332C Timbale Cases - - - 331

Timbales of Toast - - 333

EQUIPMENT

32A Food Mixer- - - - 3 34 Gadgets -----

6A Oven Management - - 5

6B Using Oven and Broiler 2 38 A Well-Planned Kitchen

FISH

196B Baked Fish - - - - 196

196A Cooking Salmon - - 193

332A Creamed Salmon - - 219

196B Lobster 218

216A Planked Fish (color) - 200

JELLIES, PRESERVES

683A, B Jelly 681

676A Orange Marmalade - 675

676A Peach Preserves - - - 670

676B Preserves 667

ILLUSTRATION

MEATS

REFER TO PAGE

363B Bacon 265

Fluffy Eggs - - - - 373 290A Boning and Stuffing

Shoulder 303

256B Breast of Lamb - - - 258

Stuffed Onions - - - 403

264A Candle Roast of Pork - 259

85A Carving Leg O'Lamb - 85

85B Carving Steak and Roast

------- 83, 84

256A Crown Roast of Lamb - 256

34lA Flank Steak Fillets - - 343

Onion Sauce - - - 315

363B Ham and Eggs - - - 264

256A Leg O'Lamb - - - - 257

341 B Meat Balls - - - - 245

230A, B, Q D

Meat Cut Charts - - 230

243B Planked Steak - - - 244

239A, B Pot Roast of Beef - 239

62 IB Rechauffe of Lamb - 620 242A Roast Beef with York- shire Pudding

(color) ... - 242

Roasting Beef - - - 242

Rolled Roast - - - - 231

Sausage and Corn - - 619

Stuffed Ham - - - - 263

Stuffed Peppers - - 346, 347

PIES, PASTRIES Coconut Cream Pie

(color) - - - 598, 600

Fruit Dumplings - - 548 How to Keep Pics in

Shape 587

B How to Make Pies - 583

Lattice Top Crust - - 587

Pastry Pinwheels - - 610 POULTRY

243A 243B 621B 264A 341A

606A

594B 594A

587A, 594A 594B

290B

85A

332D 407A

276B

264B 296A 276A

Boning and Rolling Turkey - - - - -

Carving Poultry - - - 86

Chicken Mousse - - 350

Chicken Ring - - - 350

Brussels Sprouts - - 392 Methods of Trussing

Poultry 276

Preparing Poultry - - 275

Roast Chicken (color) 277 Stuffing and Roasting

Chicken ... - 277

LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS

PAGE

24B ^2B 24A 32B

427A 435A 435A 436A

435B 427B 427B 435B 427A

164B

139B 139A 139A

139B 190

187A 187A 170B

170 A 170B 170B

187B

REFER

ILLUSTRATION to page PROCESSES

Clarifying Fat - - - 2^

Correct Measurements - 13

Deep Fat Frying - - 24

Whipping Cream - - 33

SALADS

Cabbage in Aspic - - 428

Frosted Melon - - - 440

Fruit Salad Bowl - - 441 Molded Fruit Salad

(color) - - 427,437, 530

Pear-Grape Salad - - 440

Salad Bowl - - - - 441

Stuffed Tomato - - - 433

Tomato Rose Salad - 434 Vegetable Plate with 388-423

Hollandaise Sauce - 312 SANDWICHES Individual Sandwich

Loaves 150

Sandwiches - - - 131-155

Sandwich Loaf - - - 150 Sandwich Treasure

Chest 132

Toasted Cheese Loaf - 157

SOUPS Assorted Soup Acces- sories 186

Cheese Rolls- - - - 186 Cheese Sticks - - 186, 381

Consomme - - - - 168

Pea Soup 174

Cream of Corn Soup - 178

Cream Soup - - - - 177

Pea Soup 174

Consomme - - - 168, 171

Soup Accessories - - 186

REFER

PAGE ILLUSTRATION to page

TABLE SETTINGS

56B Bridal Breakfast Table - 76A Buffet Dining Table - 76B, C Dinner Service Chart 76D Table Settings - - - 56B Thanksgiving Dinner Table

57

726

76

76

390B

390B

621A

407A

396B 407B

396A 621B 621A 407B 407B

407A 256B

341A 396B 3 90 A

91 427A

56

VEGETABLES

Artichokes with Hol- landaise Sauce - 388, 312 Asparagus with Cheese Fondue - - - - 623

Asparagus with Hol- landaise Sauce -389,312 Brussels Sprouts - - 392 Chicken Ring - . - Carrot Ring - - - -

Cauliflower - - - -

Potato Cups - - - -

Corn ------

Corn wirh Sausage - - Lima Beans Neufchatel Pigs in Taters - - - Potato Cups - - - -

Cauliflower - - - -

Squash . - - - -

Stuffed Onions - - - Breast of Lamb - - - Stuffed Peppers - - Toasted Carrots - - Vegetable Cookery - Vegetable Garnishes Vegetable Plate with Hollandaise Sauce

350 35 5 393 408 395 619 625 406 408 393 418 403 258 347

- 393

- 385

- 90 388-423

- 312

346

AT YOUR SERVICE

Unless otherwise specified, all recipes are based on service for six persons. When cooking for more, multiply the ingredients in direa proportion. When fewer are to be served, divide by two or three as necessary. A full discussion of the problems of small quantity preparations is found in the chapter entitled "Cooking for Two"

THE FORMAL

TEA PARTY fS THE

OPPORTUNITY FOR ALL

YOUR DAINTIEST. TOUCHES

The editor wishes to acknowledge the gen- erous and wholehearted cooperation of those who put at our disposal the beautiful photo- graphs and color plates tvhich appear in this book.

Armour and Company

The Best Foods, Inc.

Booth Fisheries Corporation

Campbell Soup Company

Canned Salmon Industry

Chicago Flexible Shaft Company

Corn Products Refining Company

Corning Glass Works

Fostoria Class Company

Fruit Dispatch Company

Caper Catering Company

General Foods Corporation

Hawaiian Pineapple Company, Ltd.

Hotpoint

Institute American Poultry Industries

Irradiated Evaporated Milk Institute

John F. Jelke Company

The Junket Folks

Kalamazoo Vegetable Parchment Company

Kraft- Phenix Cheese Corporation

Mandel Brothers

Mirro Aluminum

Modern Science Institute

National Dairy Council

National Live Stock and Meat Board

The Palmer House

Peoples Gas Light and Coke Company

Reed and Barton

Sterling Silversmiths Guild of America

Swift and Company

Towie Manufacturing Company

U. S. Bureau Home Economics

West Bend Aluminum Company

Wheat Flour Institute

All color plates, end papers and illustrations on the jacket are by courtesy of

THE CARNATION MILK COMPANY

and

LAND 0' LAKES CREAMERIES

USEFUL FACTS ABOUT FOOD

USE OF RECIPES

'T^O become a good cook requires more than the blind follow- ^ ing of a recipe. This is frequently illustrated when several women living in the same community, all using the same recipe, obtain widely differing results. It is the reason so many cooks say, "I had good luck with my cake to-day," or "I had bad luck with my bread yesterday." Happily, luck causes neither the success nor the failure of a product. To become a good cook means to gain a knowledge of foods and how they behave, and skill in manipulating them. The recipe by itself, helpful as it is, will not produce a good product; the human being using the recipe must interpret it and must have skill in handling the materials it prescribes.

Some of the lessons which the person desiring to become a good cook should learn are given in the following pages. They will not be learned all at once; but if they are gradually mastered, luck will play a less important part in culinary con- versation.

Methods of Cooking Food

Boiling is cooking in water at a temperature of 212° Fahrenheit. At this temperature water will bubble vigorously and as these bubbles come to the surface of the water steam is given oflF. (In mountainous regions, where the boiling-point is affected by atmospheric pressure, allowance must be made for the variation.)

Simmering is cooking in water at a temperature of 180° F. to 210° F., or below the boiling-point of water. Only an oc- casional bubble is formed and rises slowly to the surface.

Stewing is cooking in a small amount of water. The water may boil or simmer, as indicated for the food that is to be cooked.

Steaming is cooking in the steam generated by boiling water.

Pressure Cooking is cooking in steam at a pressure of 5 to

1

30 pounds and at temperatures 228° F. to 274° F. The rise in the temperature of the steam is caused by holding it under pressure. A special cooker is necessary for this cooking. From 10 to 15 pounds (240° to 250° F.) is the pressure ordinarily used for household purposes.

Broiling is cooking over or imder or in front of a fire of live coals or a gas or electric burner, or other direct heat.

Oven Broiling is cooking in a broiler pan (either with or without a rack) that runs close under the heat in the broiling oven of a gas or electric stove.

Pan Broiling is cooking in a hot griddle or pan greased only enough to prevent food from sticking.

Baking is cooking in the oven. The temperature of baking varies with the food to be prepared. A slow oven should be from 250° F. to 350° F. A moderate oven shoul-d be from 350° F. to 400° F. A hot oven should be from 400° F. to 450° F. A very hot oven should be from 450° F. to 550° F.

Poaching is cooking, for a short time, foods such as eggs or fish or mixtures of these foods, in water, milk, or stock, just below the boiling temperature.

Oven Poaching is cooking in the oven in a dish set in hot water. The method is used for custards, souffles, and other egg mixtures of delicate texture which are cooked in the oven.

Roasting as now used means the same as baking. Originally it meant cooking before an open fire and was similar to broil- ing.

Frying is cooking in hot fat at a temperature of from 350° F. to 400° F., depending on the nature of the food to be cooked. The article to be cooked is immersed in the fat.

Sauteing is cooking in a small quantity of fat. The article to be cooked must be shifted from side to side to come in con- tact with the fat. Sauteing is a cross between pan broiling and frying.

Braizing is a combination of stewing or steaming with bak- ing. The food to be braized is first stewed or steamed and then baked.

Fricasseeing is a combination of sauteing with stewing or steaming. The food to be fricasseed is first sauted, then stewed or steamed.

USEFUL FACTS ABOUT FOOD

FiRELESS Cooking is cooking by heat that has been retained in a fireless cooker or insulated oven. It is accomplished by surrounding the thoroughly heated food with some insulating material to keep the heat from being lost rapidly.

Methods of Mixing Food

Stirring ^Food is stirred by a rotary motion of the arm. The purpose of stirring is to mix thoroughly all ingredients.

Beating Food is beaten when the motion in mixing brings the contents at the bottom of the bowl to the top and there is a continual turning over and over of a considerable part of the contents of the bowl. The purpose of beating is to enclose a large amount of air.

Folding In Two foods are blended by putting the spoon or egg- whip vertically down through the foods, turning it under the mass, and bringing it vertically up. This process is repeated until the mixing is complete. The purpose of folding in is to prevent the escape of air or gases that have already been intro- duced into the mixture.

Cutting in A process used to blend fat with flour. It consists of cutting the fat into the flour w'ith a knife or two knives until it is distributed in as small particles as desired.

Creaming A rubbing together of fat and sugar, or a press- ing and beating of fat to soften it.

Kneading A stretching motion applied to dough when more flour is to be added than can be either stirred or beaten into the mixture; or used to make a dough smooth and even in consistency.

Larding A process of inserting match-like strips of salt pork about one-fourth inch in thickness into a dry meat or fish. These strips are called lardons, and are inserted either by mak- ing an incision in the surface and laying the lardon in the slash- ing or by the use of a larding-needle. The pork is clamped into one end of the needle and is threaded into the meat, as in any sewing process.

COOKING BY TEMPERATURE

For best results in cooking, exact temperatures should be known and followed. This requires the use of thermometers

such as an oven thermometer or an oven-heat regulator for all sorts of baking, and special thermometers for sugar cookery, deep-fat frying, and roasting meats.

Automatic Mechanical Oven-Heat Regulators which control temperature automatically by regulating the supply of heat are available in both gas and electric ranges. These are of great assistance alike to the experienced cook who would always obtain the same results with a given recipe and to the beginner w^ho has nothing to guide her in estimating the length of time required to get the slow, moderate and hot stages in her oven.

Heat Regulators or Temperature Controls must al- ways be built into a gas range at the factory, and they must usually be built into electric ranges. For both types of stove they may be set to control a desired temperature automatically. Once set, they will maintain the temperature to within a few degrees Fahrenheit of that indicated, for an indefinite period.

Time Controls are now quite common on modern ranges and even on fireless cookers, and, in combination with the temperature controls, they are almost uncanny, for they will turn heat on at a definite time and off again at another speci- fied moment. This makes it possible to put a meal in the oven or cooker in the morning and leave it with the assurance that it will start to cook at five o'clock in the afternoon and that the heat will be turned off again at Hye forty-five. As today's ovens and cookers are thoroughly insulated, the heat retained in the oven wall and in the food will complete the cooking. Moreover, since they are cooking on a decreasing heat, there is little or no danger of burning food, even if you should be delayed beyond the time when you planned to return.

Thermometers That Can be Set in the Oven may be used where an oven heat regulator is not available. A small flash light is useful for reading them in a dark oven.

Other Thermometers may be bought for candy and frosting, for deep fat frying, and for roasting meats. The cost of these thermometers is not large and they will soon pay for themselves in saving of time and food.

If These Devices Are Not Available the next best thing is to seek to develop delicacy of feeling and knowledge of prac- tical tests which will detect differences in temperatures. This, of course, comes only with experience.

USEFUL FACTS ABOUT FOOD

Cooking Periods and Temperatures

Oven Temperatures for Baking

Degrees Fahreuheit

Slow oven 250 to 350

Moderate oven 350 to 400

Quick or hot oven 400 to 450

Very hot oven 450 to 550

Note Explaining the Use of Figures in the Following Tables. When two degrees of temperature or two periods of time are given, separated by a dash, (e.g. 3 50 375 or 30 40) it means that the temperature of the cooking medium or the length of the cooking period may range between these two extremes.

"When the temperature figures are separated by the word "to" (e.g. 400 to 350) it means that cooking is to be started at the tempera- ture first given and that the heat is afterward to be reduced to the second figure.

TABLE I

BREAD, CAKES, COOKIES AND PASTRY

BAKED

To bake loaves of yeast bread, heat the oven to the higher tempera- ture given, and leave it at this degree for about fifteen minutes. Then reduce it to the lower figure for the remainder of the baking period. See table of oven temperatures above.

-^ J Temperature of Oven

oread Degrees Fahrenheit Baking Period

Yeast, white (loaves) 400 to 375 Minutes 60

graham or whole wheat

(loaves) 400to350 " 60

Baking-powder (quick bread,

loaves) 400 " 40 50

Corn bread (sheets) 400 Minutes 20 25

Biscuits, baking-powder 450 460 " 12 15

Muffins, yeast 400 425 " 20 30

baking-powder 400 425 ** 20 25

Popovers 450 to 350 " 35 40

Rolls, yeast 400 425 " 20 25

Temperature of Oven Cake Degrees Fahrenheit

Angel 275—300

Butter, plain loaf 3 50 375

sheet or cup 375

layer 375

pound 350

Fruit, small 325

large 275

Molasses, sheet 350 375

cup 350—375

Sponge, loaf 300 325

sheet 325

Cookies

Drop 375 400

Filled 400 425

Ginger snaps 375

Macaroons 250 300

Molasses 350 375

Thin, rolled 350—375

Gingerbread 3 50 375

Pastry

Cheese straws, etc 500

Cream puffs and eclairs 400 to 350

Meringues, cooked separately . .250 300

on pies and puddings 300 3 50

Pie crust, shells, large pies . . . .450 500

tarts 400 450

Pies, double crust with fruit

filling 450 to 425

single crust, (custard,

pumpkin, etc.) 450 to 325

Turnovers, etc 450

Baking Period

Minutes

60— 7 S

tt

45—60

**

20—30

«

20

60—75

««

75—90

Hours

3—4

Minutes

25—30

It

15—25

tt

40—60

««

30

««

12—15

«(

10—15

«t

8—10

«t

15—20

««

18—20

ct

10—12

30 40

Minutes

10

45

40—60

S— 10

20 40

15—20

«

40

tt

40

tt

15

TABLE II

CUSTARDS, SOUFFLES, SCALLOPED DISHES AND PUDDINGS

BAKED For table of oven temperatures, see page 5 Au Gratin Dishes Degrees Fahrenheit Baking Period

(to brown crumbs) ........ .400 Minutes 10

USEFUL FACTS ABOUT FOOD

Custards Degrees Fahrenheit Baking Period

Large (surrounded by water) . . .300 350 Minutes 35 45

In cups (surrounded by water) 300 350 " 20 25

Puddings

Batter, cottage, etc 375 400 " 35 45

Bread 250—350 " 45—60

Indian 250—350 Hours 2—3

Rice or tapioca 250—350 " 1—2

Scalloped Dishes

(not potatoes) 350—400 Minutes 15—30

Souffles

(surrounded by water) 375 " 20 30

Timbales

(surrounded by water) 250 325 " 35 45

TABLE III

MEAT, POULTRY AND FISH

ROASTED

For table of oven temperatures, see page 5

The number of minutes per pound which a roast requires for cooking at a given temperature is only an approximation. The accurate way of determining doneness is by the internal tem- perature shown on the meat thermometer inserted into the roast.

All boned cuts require longer cooking time than those with the bones left in. Allow about 10 minutes per pound longer for cooking boned cuts.

Many hams now on the market require shorter cooking time. For these hams, follow directions given with them.

If one wishes to sear meat, the oven may be preheated (450°- 475° F.) and the meat placed in the hot oven for 10 or 15 min- utes, then the temperature reduced quickly to 300° F. for the rest of the cooking period. Searing, however, does not keep in juices. The constant low temperature method is preferred.

8

Oven Temperature Roasting Period

Meat Total, hrs.

Braized meats 350° R 2— 2l/^

Meat en casserole 350° F. 2 ly^

Meat pie with crust (meat previously Total, mins.

cooked) 450° F. 30

Oven Internal Minutes Beef Temperature Temperature Per Pound

Rare 300° F. 140° F. 18 to 20

Medium 300° F. 160° F. 22 to 25

Well done 300° F. 170° F. 27 to 30

Voxk

Fresh (always well done) . 350° F. 185° F. 30 to 35

Smoked 300° F. 170° F. 25 to 30

Lamb and Mutton

Medium 300° F. 175° F. 25 to 30

Well done 300° F. 180° F. 30 to 35

Yeal 300° F. 170° F. 25 to 30

Poultry

Chicken 325°— 350° F. 22—30

Duck, Goose 325°— 350° F. 20—25

Turkey 300°— 350° F. 15—25

Fish Total, mins.

Large 425° to 350° F. 15—20

Small or riUets 425° to 350° F. 20—30

SIMMERED OR BOILED

Simmering temperatures range from 180° F. to 210° F.

Meat Cooking Period

Fresh

Pot roasts (3-4 lbs.) Total, hrs. 2— 6

Swiss steak " " 2

Corned or smoked (4-5 lbs.) Mins. per lb. 30—40

Ham Total, hrs. 4— 5

Ox tongue " " 3 4

Poultry

Chicken (3 pounds) " " 1 l^A

Fowl (4 to 5 pounds) " " 2 5

Turkey (10 pounds) " " 3—31/^

Fish

Small, thin Mins. per lb. 5—10

Large, thick " " " 1C> 15

USEFUL FACTS ABOUT FOOD

BROILED OR SAUTEED

Meat

Chops, lamb or mutton

pork or veal

Liver, calves or lambs

Steak, 1 inch thick (rare to medium)

lYz inch thick (rare to medium) .

Poultry

Chicken

Quail

Squab

Fish

Fillets

Shad, whitefish, bluefish, etc

Cooking

Period

tal, mins

. 15—20

" »t

20—30

<t

10 15

«« tt

10

ee

8—15

«e ««

20—30

««

10 20

<( C(

10 20

tt

5—15

tt tt

15—20

FRIED For fried meats, poultry and fish, see Table IV, following

TABLE IV FRIED FOODS

Deep Fat Frying

Temperature of Fat Degrees Fahrenheit

Croquettes

And all previously cooked foods 375 390

Doughnuts, Fritters

And all raw batter and dough

mixtures

3 60—370

Fish

Fillets (sole, cod, etc.) 390

Frogs' legs 390

Small fish (smelts, etc.) 375 390

Medium sized fish (trout, etc.) . 390

Fishballs 375 390

Clams 390

Crabs 360

Oysters 375 390

Scallops 3 60

Cooking Period Total, mins. 2 5

Total, mins. 2 3

4—6 2—3 2—5 2—5 2—5 1—2 3—5 2—5 2

Id

_ « w* « Temperature of Fat

Meat and Poultry Degrees Fahrenheit

Chicken 375 390

Chops or cutlets, breaded 375 400

Timbale Cases 390

Vegetables

French fried potatoes, onions,

etc 395

Cooking Period Total, mins. 5 7 « 5—8

« « l__li/2

TABLE V

EGGS

BOILED

Temperature of "Water Degrees Fahrenheit

Soft 212

Hard 212

CODDLED

Soft 180—200

Hard 180 200

BAKED

Temperature of Oven Degrees Fahrenheit

Soft 250—350

Hard 250—360

Cooking Period Total, mins. 2 4 20—30

Total, mins .s 6 10

30 45

Total, mins. 6 10 « 25—40

TABLE VI

FRUITS AND VEGETABLES

BOILED

Fruits Cooking Period

Apples, cut Mins. 5 8

whole " 15—25

dried Hrs. 1 4

Apricots, dried . . . Hrs. ^ 2 Berries and small

fr\iits Mins. 10 15

Cranberries " 10

Figs, dried " 20

Peaches " 12

Fruits

Prunes, dried (soaked 1 to 6 hours) Mins.

Pears, summer Mins. winter ...

Pineapple . . .

Plums

Quince '

Rhubarb *

Cooking Period

10

10—20 60 20 12

15 40 S

'USEFUL FACTS ABOUT FOOD

II

Cooking Period

Mins. 15—35 3—4 5— 1:5 20—40

25—35

8—15 20—40 20 40 10—30

3-

Hrs,

Mins.

Vegetables

Leeks

Lentils, dried . . . Hrs.

Lettuce Mins.

Okra

Macaroni, spa- ghetti, etc. . . Onions, young

(scallions) . . .

old

Parsnips

Peas, green ....

dried

Potatoes,

white

sweet

Pumpkin (cut) . ,

Rice

Spinach

Salsify

Squash, summer

winter

Tomatoes

Turnips ,

Periods Required for Waterless Cookery of Vegetables The time required for waterless cookery varies somewhat with the age of the vegetable and the size of the pieces into which it is cut. It is generally safe to allow the maximum period given in the preced- ing tables, if the vegetables are young. For old, fully matured vege- tables, increase the time from ten to twenty minutes.

Vegetables

Cooking Period

Artichokes,

French

Mins

. 30—40

Jerusalem

"

15—40

Asparagus

"

15—30

Beans, shell or

string

««

15—35

Lima, green . .

««

15—35

Navy and

other dried. . .

Hrs.

, 3 4

Beet greens

Mins,

, 15—30

Beets, young. . . .

"

30—50

old

Hrs

. 2—4

Broccoli

Mins,

. 15—25

Brussels sprouts . .

"

15—20

Cabbage

"

5—20

Carrots, young. .

"

15—25

old

"

20—35

Cauliflower

"

15—30

Celery

"

15—30

Corn

"

7 12

Cucumber

"

5—20

Dandelion greens

"

20—35

Dasheen

"

15—35

Eggplant

<<

15—20

Kohlrabi

«»

25—45

20—45 25—30 30— 4a 20-30

5—10 20—45 10—20 20—30

5—15 15—40

BAKED

_ , Temperature of Oven

trmts Degrees Fahrenheit

Apples 3 50—375

Bananas 400 450

Pears 350—375

Rhubarb 3 50 375

Baking Period

Mins. 20 40

" 15—20

" 45—60

" 20

12

BAKED

Temperature of Oven Vegetables Degrees Fahrenheit

Beans, with pork 250 3 50

Cauliflower 375 400

Eggplant (stuffed) 3 50—375

Mushrooms 400 450

Onions, whole (stuffed) 400 450

sKced 400 450

Peppers (stuffed) 3 50—375

Potatoes, sweet, in skins 400 450

white, in skins, large 450 500

small to medium 450 500

scalloped 3 50 400

Baking Period Hrs. 6—8 Mins. 30 " 30 " 15 " 60 " 30 " 30 " 30 40 " 45—60 " 30—45 1—1/2

Hrs.

TABLE VII CANDY AND FROSTING

Stages in Sugar Cooking

Sirup stage 220-^230

Thread stage 230—234

Soft ball stage 234 240

Medium ball stage 240 244

Stiff ball stage 244—250

Hard ball stage 250 264

Light crack stage 264 272

Medium crack stage 272 290

Hard crack stage 290 320

Caramel stage 320 360

CANDIES

Fondant (soft ball stage) 238 240

Fudge and Marshmallow (thread to soft ball stage) .... 230 238

Caramels and Nougat (stiff ball stage) 246 250

Molasses taffy and soft candies to be pulled (hard ball

stage) 245 260

Hard candies to be pulled (medium crack stage) 272 290

Toffee and butterscotch (medium to hard crack stage) . . 280 300

Clear brittle candies (hard crack stage) 290 310

BOILED FROSTING

1 egg-white to 1 cup sugar (soft to medium ball stage) 23 8 242

2 egg-whites to 1 cup sugar (stiff ball stage) 244 248

3 egg-whites to 1 cup sugar (hard ball stage) 254 260

USEFUL FACTS ABOUT FOOD 13

MEASUREMENTS

Learn to Measure Accurately All the measurements in this book, and in most modern cook-books and magazines, are level. It will not do to use a heaping teaspoon, tablespoon or cup when a level one is meant. To change proportions by- wrong measuring causes poor results, for example:

Too much flour will make a cake dry and crumbly, bread solid and heavy, sauces thick and pasty.

Too much fat will make cakes oily and may cause them to fall; it will make grease-soaked doughnuts and greasy gravies and sauces.

Too much sugar will make a cake with a hard crust, or a sticky cake; it makes a soft, sticky jelly.

Too much liquid will make a cake that falls easily.

Too much soda gives a disagreeable taste and bad color to breads and cakes.

Have Accurate Equipment for Measuring, as follows:

A measuring-cup holding one-fourth quart and divided by ridges on one side into thirds and on the other side into fourths.

A quart measure divided